This monograph presents theoretical and experimental studies of flows of elastic liquids. Falling into this category are particularly the melts and concentrated solutions of such flexible-chain polymers as polyethylene, polyisobutylene and polypropylene, all of which are widely used in polymer processing. These polydisperse polymers vary greatly, from batch to batch, in their mechanical properties and 20% variation in a property is believed to be good enough. l 7 All recent books - devoted to the rheology of polymers do not answer the question of which constitutive equations should be used for solving the fluid mechanic problems of polymer processing in the usual case of an appreciable nonlinear region of deformation where nonlinear effects of shear and extensional elasticity are very important. Viscoelastic constitut- ive equations cited commonly (see, e.g. Refs 5 and 6) do not describe simultaneously even the simplest cases of deformations, viz. simple shear and uniaxial extension. Moreover, some of them are internally inconsist- ent and sometimes display highly unstable behaviour in simple flows without any fundamental reasons. Even more respected molecular ap- free from these defects.
The high reliability required in industrial processes has created the necessity of detecting abnormal conditions, called faults, while processes are operating. The term fault generically refers to any type of process degradation, or degradation in equipment performance because of changes in the process's physical characteristics, process inputs or environmental conditions. This book is about the fundamentals of fault detection and diagnosis in a variety of nonlinear systems which are represented by ordinary differential equations. The fault detection problem is approached from a differential algebraic viewpoint, using residual generators based upon high-gain nonlinear auxiliary systems ('observers'). A prominent role is played by the type of mathematical tools that will be used, requiring knowledge of differential algebra and differential equations. Specific theorems tailored to the needs of the problem-solving procedures are developed and proved. Applications to real-world problems, both with constant and time-varying faults, are made throughout the book and include electromechanical positioning systems, the Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR), bioreactor models and belt drive systems, to name but a few.
Once upon a time, a laptop arrived in Fairy-tale land... A happily ever after is only a click away! Find out what happens when our favorite fairy-tale characters receive a laptop and learn a lesson in online safety. Once Upon a Time... Online is illustrated by Rose Reeve and written by David Bedford.